字符串匹配算法(五)——Horspool算法

Horspool算法是Boyer-Moore算法的一个简化版,全名叫做Boyer-Moore-Horspool算法。

Horspool算法的基本思想是将文本串text中匹配窗口的最后一个字符跟模式串pattern中的最后一个字符比较。如果相等,继续从后向前对主串和模式串进行比较,直到完全相等或者在某个字符处不匹配为止 。如果不匹配,则根据文本串匹配窗口中的最后一个字符β在模式串中的下一个出现位置将窗口向右移动;若字符β没有在模式串中出现,则直接将整个模式串滑过这一位。

同样的举个例子来说明一下。假定文本串text为:”HERE IS A SIMPLE EXAMPLE”,长度为n;模式串pattern为:”EXAMPLE”,长度为m;现在要在text中搜索看看是否包含pattern。

1).


HERE IS A SIMPLE EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE

‘S’与’E’匹配失败,并且’S’没有在pattern中出现,所以直接将pattern滑过’S’这一位。

2).


HERE IS A SIMPLE EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE

这时’P’与’E’匹配失败,但是’P’在模式串pattern中出现了,所以把pattern向右移,使得text中的’P’与pattern中的’P’对齐。

3).


HERE IS A SIMPLE EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE

然后重复执行之前的操作。

用C语言实现如下。

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#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <limits.h>
/* Returns a pointer to the first occurrence of "needle"
* within "haystack", or NULL if not found. Works like
* memmem().
*/
/* Note: In this example needle is a C string. The ending
* 0x00 will be cut off, so you could call this example with
* boyermoore_horspool_memmem(haystack, hlen, "abc", sizeof("abc"))
*/
const unsigned char *
boyermoore_horspool_memmem(const unsigned char* haystack, size_t hlen,
const unsigned char* needle, size_t nlen)
{
int index = 0;
size_t scan = 0;
size_t bad_char_skip[UCHAR_MAX + 1]; /* Officially called:
* bad character shift */
/* Sanity checks on the parameters */
if (nlen <= 0 || !haystack || !needle)
return NULL;
/* ---- Preprocess ---- */
/* Initialize the table to default value */
/* When a character is encountered that does not occur
* in the needle, we can safely skip ahead for the whole
* length of the needle.
*/
for (scan = 0; scan <= UCHAR_MAX; scan = scan + 1)
bad_char_skip[scan] = nlen;
/* C arrays have the first byte at [0], therefore:
* [nlen - 1] is the last byte of the array. */
size_t last = nlen - 1;
/* Then populate it with the analysis of the needle */
for (scan = 0; scan < last; scan = scan + 1)
bad_char_skip[needle[scan]] = last - scan;
/* ---- Do the matching ---- */
/* Search the haystack, while the needle can still be within it. */
while (hlen >= nlen)
{
/* scan from the end of the needle */
for (scan = last; haystack[scan] == needle[scan]; scan = scan - 1)
if (scan == 0) /* If the first byte matches, we've found it. */
{
printf("index: %d\n", index-1);
return haystack;
}
/* otherwise, we need to skip some bytes and start again.
Note that here we are getting the skip value based on the last byte
of needle, no matter where we didn't match. So if needle is: "abcd"
then we are skipping based on 'd' and that value will be 4, and
for "abcdd" we again skip on 'd' but the value will be only 1.
The alternative of pretending that the mismatched character was
the last character is slower in the normal case (E.g. finding
"abcd" in "...azcd..." gives 4 by using 'd' but only
4-2==2 using 'z'. */
hlen -= bad_char_skip[haystack[last]];
index += bad_char_skip[haystack[last]];
haystack += bad_char_skip[haystack[last]];
}
return NULL;
}
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
char text[] = "HERE IS A SILMPLE EXAMPLE";
char pattern[] = "EXAMPLE";
char *result = boyermoore_horspool_memmem(text, strlen(text), pattern, strlen(pattern));
if (result)
{
printf("result: %s\n", result);
} else {
printf("failed!\n");
}
return 0;
}